|Carlo Santagata theoretical physics|
Solution of the Modern Physics' Singularities
A probable Cause of the Gravity
As it will be shown in the present note, it is possible to eliminate the two singularities that torment the modern physics, the Quantum Mechanics and the General Relativity ones (Universal Gravitation of Newton), coming, in this last case, to an unification of the gravity with the other known interactions. We think it’s opportune to integrally bring the initial part of the article of Cristopher J. Isham and Nobel Abdus Salam Gravitation and electrodynamic quantistic  of 1973 that still outlines the actual situation.
The theory of the relativity and the quantistic mechanics are without any doubt two of the most intellectual conquests of the century (just flowed). Both these theories have drastically altered the vision that the man has on world of matter and they have had a decisive influence on the development of the physics during the last fifty years; for relativity we naturally intend the whole theory of Einstein, so both the general relativity than the special one.
The Quantistic mechanics, the special relativity and that general one are all extensions of the Newton’s mechanics in different fields of the physics; It can be said that while the Quantistic mechanics treats the atomic and subatomic phenomenons, the special relativity concerns the speeds that draw near to the light one and the general relativity describes the gravitational phenomenons that occur on astronomic staircase in the universe.
Because of the great importance of these theories it is comprehensible that a great effort of research has been devoted to the attempt to unify them, since the times of their rising. Since special relativity is easily connectable to the general one, the most serious assignment is to incorporate the Quantistic Mechanics in it . If, for example, we want to describe the motion of an electron or other elementary particles endowed with high speeds, we need a relativistic version (in the sense of the special relativity) of the Quantistic mechanics. The essential point is that the famous equation of Einstein allows the particles to turn themselves into radiant energy and vice versa. The possibility to create and annihilate particles is not contemplated in the native version of the Quantistic Mechanics and therefore it’s necessary to apply ample changes to be able to incorporate these phenomenons in the theory; the most proper scheme for this purpose is that of the Quantistic and relativistic theory of the fields in which the particles are considered as quantums of a field.
This article however concerns more of the combination of the Quantistic Mechanics and the general relativity, since, because the theory of Einstein is based on the gravitational field, its quantization has the tendency to use the techniques of the Quantistic theory of the fields, with the gravitons in function of the quantums. The assignment to unify these two structures results particularly fascinating since it implicates some considerable conceptual difficulties over that of mathematical technique, deriving from the particular role assumed in physics by the gravitational field because of its universal interaction with the whole matter and energy. The problem to establish if it is desirable and possible from the practical point of view, over that from the principle one, to quantize the gravitational field in the picture of the general relativity has being debated for a lot of years. It has in fact different aspects, if it is tried to describe some purely local quantistic effects of the gravitation, or if the most ambitious project to quantize the whole universe is had! In the second case fundamental philosophical difficulties rise in relationship to the axioms of base of the theory, while in the first one, concerning more directly the theme of this article, fortunately these difficulties don't rise. Before facing this problem there is however to wonder why to quantize the gravitational field; an answer to this question is that every classical field endowed with removed ways is you quantized, as also the matter, and that it would be disagreeable from an aesthetical point of view if the gravitational field were not subject to the same procedure, although it is to be objectively added that, since the gravitation has some unique ownerships in comparison to the other natural forces, this argument is not so persuasive as it could appear at first sight.
Two of the more urgent reasons to quantize the gravitational field are the possibility to use this fact to eliminate two serious defects rising in the general relativity and in the quantistic theory of the fields. One of the most recent progress in the general relativity of classical type has been the one of the demonstration, from S. Hawking, R. Penrose and others, that, under very reasonable physical hypothesis, the variety describing the space-time will inevitably have some singularities in the future (or it has had one in the past); this fact is tightly connected to the phenomenon of the gravitational collapse and evidently represents the signal of the invalidation of a theory that cannot be used for foreseeing what happens beyond a (or in the precise) instant of time (the one of singularity). It has been hoped for a long time that the inclusion of the Quantistic Mechanics allowed to eliminate this defect introducing intrinsic statistic fluctuations in the geometry of the space time that allow the structure in phase of collapse 'to bounce' from the unusual configuration and to take back the evolution. On the other hand one of the serious defects of the normal quantistic theory of the fields is that, if it is tried to get some comparable results with the experience through a development in series of perturbative kind (till now this is the only known technique to get some results), the most greater part of the terms become endless, making the theory useless. An accurate examination of these singularities (that are totally different from the singularities of the space-time verified in the gravitational collapse) it makes to glimpse the possibility to eliminate them and to make the theory reasonable through the inclusion in it of quantistic fluctuations of the gravitational field. This aspect of the quantistic theory of the gravitation has constituted the object of the researches of the authors of this article, in collaboration with J. Strathdee, and now it’s about to be discussed. …
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